Biotechnology 

 

Biotechnology refers to any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms or derivatives thereof, for to make or modify products or processes for specific use. In this area we study and leverages mechanisms and biological interactions of living organisms, especially unicellular, through a broad multidisciplinary field such as biology, biochemistry, genetics, virology, agronomy, ecology, engineering, physics, chemistry, and veterinary medicine among others.

Applications:

Depending on the type of applications are classified as:

Red biotechnology: In medical processes, such as the design of organisms to produce antibiotics, vaccines and new drugs, molecular diagnostics, regenerative therapies, and the development of genetic engineering to cure or prevent certain diseases, through the introduction of genetic material in cells of a human being.

White Biotechnology: For industrial and environmental use, as is the case of the design of microorganisms to produce a chemical product or the use of enzymes as industrial catalysts, either to produce valuable chemicals or destroy hazardous chemical contaminants, in creating new materials such as biofuels and biodegradable plastics.

Green biotechnology: agricultural processes, design of transgenic plants capable of growing in unfavorable environmental conditions and pest and disease resistant plants. Currently there are strong debates if they are more environmentally friendly or not.

Blue Biotechnology: marine and aquatic applications, a promising field of research and development, as its applications are promising for aquaculture, health care, cosmetic and food products.

Nanomateriales.

Materials Science deals with the study and preparation, crystal structure and physical and chemical properties of materials, and how to adapt to specific uses. Its aim is to study the interplay between materials and their properties, consolidating and expanding both experimental and theoretical knowledge.

Nanomaterials are materials with smaller morphological properties than one micron in at least one dimensión 0.1A. Despite the fact that there is no consensus on the minimum or maximum size of a nanomaterial, some authors restrict the size of 1 to 100 nm, one logical definition would place the nanoscale between microscale (1 micrometer) and atomic / molecular scale (about 0.2 nm) .

Nanotechnology uses objects or very small devices. Nanomaterials are an increasingly important nanotechnology product. Containing nanoparticles of a size less than 100 nanometers in at least one dimension.

Nanomaterials are now used in fields like health, electronics and cosmetics, among others. Their physical and chemical properties often differ from those of other bulk materials, which require specialized risk assessment. This should cover the risks to the health of workers and consumers, and potential environmental risks.

This is currently carried out case by case, but it must updating the risk assessment methods due to more widespread use of nanomaterials, especially now that are doing their way to reach to consumer products.

Among the proposed projects is considered: The study and development of biomaterials for remediation of contaminated soils in landfills.

Responsible: Beatriz Mónica Pérez Ibarra